Boarders come from more than 30 states and 20 foreign countries; about 12% are international students, and 18% are nonwhite. To avoid extending the length of the school day, academic and nonacademic periods (student life, music programs, etc), assemblies, and afternoon activities (ie, athletics, theater, etc) were reduced by 5 to 10 minutes.For boarding students, school night lights-out schedules and procedures in the dormitories did not change.Multiple studies have now suggested that, in particular, the early start times of many high schools, as well as some middle schools, may significantly contribute to inadequate sleep in adolescents.
The Sleepiness Scale is a modified version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, which rates sleepiness under various conditions; a higher score indicates a greater propensity to fall asleep.
The Sleep-Wake Behavior Problems Scale contains 15 items that reflect a combination of difficulties with sleep initiation and maintenance, as well as other sleep-related problems (eg, nightmares); a higher score indicates more sleep problems.
In addition to the impact of these biological factors, environmental factors and lifestyle/social demands such as homework, extracurricular activities, and after-school jobs can significantly affect sleep patterns in adolescents.
Significant variability is seen in sleep-wake patterns from weekday to weekend, often accompanied by sleeping late on weekends in an attempt to address the chronic sleep debt accumulated during the week.
As a result, high school students are at considerable risk for adverse consequences associated with inadequate sleep, including impairments in mood, attention, memory, behavioral control, and quality of life.
In light of these myriad negative effects on adolescent health and well-being, the identification of potentially modifiable factors that escalate the risk of insufficient sleep in this population is an important public health issue.Each survey was assigned a code number and did not contain names or other information that would identify students personally or allow them to be matched to their survey responses.Access to the data from all completed surveys was restricted to the principal investigator and research assistant.Specifically, student self-reported sleep patterns and behaviors and sleepiness-related variables were assessed by the administration of an online retrospective survey before and after the 2-month trial period of the change in start times.School administrative data regarding Health Center visits, dining hall statistics, and tardiness/absences were also collected before and after the intervention.found that 80% of adolescents in the United States were getting less than the recommended 9 hours of sleep on school nights.